New book on Early California History

Men of the 1769 Overland Expeditions, Velicatá to San Diego

The following information will soon be published by well-known California historian, Harry Crosby.  Mr. Crosby is        anxious to augment the information with family data collected through the efforts of  family researchers. If you have         family data that you would like included, please contact Harry Crosby immediately and directly. Please note, in order   
to increase the value of the information for family researchers, the information that is sent must include the source of the   document in which the data was found, such as the name of the mission, archival collection, call number, indexing code,  etc.

Harry Crosby > hcrosby@san.rr.com

California’s pioneer historians began their studies a decade or two after Alta California became the spoils of war and one of the United States of America. Spain’s opening of Alta California immediately drew their attention and they began to read the records and letters of pioneer Franciscan missionaries and to piece together the less organized documents that might tell the story of Spain’s military and civilian presence as well. By the time Hubert Howe Bancroft put his organized team to work in this field, the names of Father Junípero Serra and Governor Gaspar de Portolá were known to most educated Californians. From the beginning, the overland expedition that came north from the still-mysterious peninsula caught historians’ eyes, and efforts were made to accumulate the records that pertained. Lists were made, identifying more and more individuals who participated in this Hispanic opening of Alta California. However, that was not an age of genealogists or social historians, and no one dug deeply enough to name all the who were merely counted by the expedition’s journal keepers; no list pretended to name more than the very few positively documented as members of either the first or second land parties to San Diego.

In a few cases, retrospective accounts made their way into re-enlistment papers, service records, retirement documents, or even obituaries, providing undoubted proof of participation in stated aspects of the great step to the north, 1769 to 1771. However, a single source serves as a treasure trove of direct documentation for those who participated in the land expeditions of 1769. In the Archivo General de la Nación, México, D. F., may be found hundreds of volumes (bales, actually) of documents pertaining to Spanish military affairs, but not filed by region or date, as most are. These apparent odds-and-ends are called Indiferentes de Guerra, uncatalogued documents, accompanied at that time only by lists of the places they reported on, and the range of dates they covered. In Legajo 3, volume 161 B, appears a very long document written, beginning in 1790, by California veteran soldier and Alta California explorer, José Francisco Ortega. The purpose of this voluminous expediente, or series of documents, was to apply for back pay owing to men who took part in the opening of Alta California. In order to bolster his arguments with tangible facts, Ortega copied out, or had copied, original records of supplies issued to men who were on the ground in San Diego or Monterey. Each entry of items issued carried the date, the place, and the name of the recipient. To make a very long process of deduction short, Ortega’s master document allows heretofore unprecedented groupings of men, not only indicating all those who went north in 1769, but in more than half the cases, allowing them to be assigned to either the first or second land parties — the basis for the lists of men in these groups found elsewhere in this work.

Likewise, the following men — not counting officers and missionaries — whether or not otherwise documented, are proven, by having received supplies prior to the arrival of the first replacement troops (early 1771), to have been in San Diego in June of 1769. And those who were listed as recipients prior to 30 June were members of the first, or Rivera-led party. Every student of California history is thus indebted to José Francisco Ortega.

For each man who rode north in 1769 with either Fernando de Rivera or Gaspar de Portolá, I list below the data that I came upon, or that others brought to my attention, in the course of my studies. In a few cases, a man’s documented history so extensive that only a skeleton outline is offered. With most, the documentary record is modest and much of it is represented here — and it must be emphasized that a majority of these men were illiterate; all sorts of data, ages and the names of children included, might be given differently at different times — as were the terms used by their superiors with respect to calidad, the euphemism for judgements of racial makeup for each individual.

For obvious reasons, most of the research for this study was done among records of events prior to 1771. Therefore, I am greatly indebted to colleagues in the field of California Hispanic genealogy who contributed much of the information about the later careers of men who remained long or permanently in Alta California.

For about a fifth of these men, very little is offered here beyond the records of their participation in the Spanish occupation of the new California. Perhaps this attempt to tell their story will stimulate further revelations, further searches, and further publications. The door is open.

The bibliography of this study explains the abbreviations used in citations of sources found below. Throughout the work, mission records are not cited, since, in each case, the name of the mission, the date, and the specific category of the record — baptism, marriage, or burial — is mentioned or implied. The sources of all mission records can be found in the bibliography.

 

Name: Francisco Javier Aguilar

Calidad: Mestizo
Born: 1743 At: San José de Comondú
Died: 1821 At: [Near] San Bartolo
Parents: Juan Antonio Aguilar and María Dolores Montaño
Wife: Javiera Trasviña
Children: José Antonio, Serafina Juana, María del Rosario

A native son enlisted by Rivera, 16 September 1768, who went with him to San Diego [AHBCS, Político, doc.33], then on to San Francisco with Portolá. Returned to the north with Portolá in the second, successful search for Monterey [AHBCS, Político, doc.33; AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Remained in Monterey under Pedro Fages — where he was noted as participating in the building of the presidio at Monterey in 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 66, ff. 33–37; Californias 76, f. 275]. Present at founding of first five Alta California missions, 1769–1773 [AHBCS, Político, doc. 33]. Godfather at Misión de San Carlos, February 1773. Served in the Escolta de la Frontera (a detachment from Presidio de Loreto), 1773–1780. Went exploring with the escolta’s lieutenant, José Velázquez, and José Ignacio Higuera into the Colorado River delta [Report by Velázquez to Felipe de Neve, 26 November 1775, AGNM, Historia, 52]. Made sargento comandante en el Sur, 1797–1807, 1811–1814. Served Presidio de Loreto 1768–1814 (retired twice, 1807, 1814).


 Name: Bernardino de Alvarado

Calidad: Español
Born: 1744 At: Loreto
Died: post-1797 At: Loreto [?]
Parents: Miguel Alvarado and [mother unknown]
Wife: María Teresa Castro
Children: Juan José María, María Guadalupe, María Rosario de la Cruz

Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — then continued to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, listed as ill, but returned with Rivera, arriving San Diego in July 1770. Alvarado one of eight soldiers who signed as co-petitioners the request written by José Francisco Ortega at San Diego, 1 September 1770, to then governor of Antigua California, Matías de Armona, asking that they be returned to their homes as Gálvez had promised would be done when the Alta California objectives were secured [AGNM, Californias, 76, 66, 267]. He and his wife served as godparents at Comondú, 1793. He listed as silversmith and tanner of deerskins at Loreto in 1797 [AHBCS, Jurídico, doc. 47].

 

 

Name: Juan Bautista de Alvarado

Calidad: Español
Born: c.1750 At: Loreto [?]
Died: post-1794 At: Comondú [?]
Parents: Miguel Alvarado and [mother unknown]
Wife: (I) María Dolores Castro; (II) Raymunda Yorba y Grijalva [San Diego, 1809]
Children: (I) José Francisco, José Domingo Justo, María del Rosario, Juan Javier, María Josefa

Probably with Rivera to San Diego; stayed there while the party under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Alvarado one of eight soldiers who signed as co-petitioners the request written by José Francisco Ortega at San Diego, 1 September 1770, to then governor of Antigua California, Matías de Armona, asking that they be returned to their homes as Gálvez had promised would be done when the Alta California objectives were secured [AGNM, Californias, 76, 66, 267]. Alvarado was with Rivera on his 1770 return to peninsula. By 11 November 1772, soldier in the guard at Misión San Fernando de Velicatá [AGNM, Californias, 2, exp. 8, f. 248]. Mayordomo at San José de Comondú, 1782–1794

 

 

Name: Sebastián Alvitre

Born: ±1745 At: Villa de Sinaloa
Died: 1817 At: San Gabriel
Parents:
Wife: María Rufina Hernández
Children: Juan José (1798)

With Rivera to San Diego; went on to San Francisco with Portolá [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Unmarried soldier at Presidio of San Diego, 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, f. 275] Transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. In early April, 1773, accused by both San Diego missionaries of being one of three soldiers, detached from San Gabriel, who raped two very young Indian girls at La Soledad [today Rose Canyon], just before reaching San Diego — one of the girls dying from her injuries [AGNM, Californias, 2 (parte 1), ff. 253, 255–265v]. Formal charges were pressed and Alvitre was kept imprisoned for over two years awaiting a verdict from authorities in México. Eventually, all three men were "sentenced" to become settlers Alta California pueblos [AGNM, Californias, 2 (parte 1), ff. 253, 255–265v; Beilharz, Felipe de Neve, p. 27–30]. Around 1783, Alvitre was an early settler of Los Angeles, his plots of land mapped, but he was expelled for bad conduct in 1786 [Bancroft, History of California, vol. I, pp. 312n., 350, 460–61, 477]. Pedro Fages in 1791 writes of Alvitre as "an incorrigible rogue," and Bancroft wrote of him after he moved to Los Angeles that he "and Francisco Avila of San Jose were usually in prison, in exile, or at forced work for their excesses with Indian women or with the wives of their neighbors … " [Bancroft, op. cit., 484, 640].

 

 Name: Pedro Antonio Amador

Calidad: Español
Born: c.1737 At: Cocula [Jalisco]
Died: 1824 At: Santa Clara
Parents: José Amador and María Josefa Carpio
Wife: (I) María de la Luz Ruiz; (II) María Ramona Noriega
Children: (I) José Jacinto, María de la Luz, María Ignacia; (II) Juan Pablo, Carmen; (II) Juan Pablo, María Antonia, Fructuoso, María del Carmen

Enlisted at Loreto, 1764 [Service record: TBL, C–A 16: 19]. With Portolá in second party to San Diego, and on to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, but did not return with him to San Diego in July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Acting sergeant in Escolta de la Frontera at Velicatá, 1773. Obtained permit to resign and return to home in Cocula, 1774. After eight months absence, returned to Loreto simply as soldier [Bancroft, History of California, vol. II, p. 584]. At Misión Santo Domingo, 1780. In Sonora with Rivera conducting settlers to Alta California (missed Yuma massacre), 1781 [AHBCS, Político, 49]. Returned to Loreto, 1782, assigned to Escolta de la Frontera late 1782 and 1783, [AHBCS, Político, exp. 71]. Transferred 25 January 1784 to Presidio of Santa Bárbara [AHBCS, Político, 102]; promoted to sergeant in 1787 [AGS, Secretaría de Guerra, Hojas de Servicio, leg. 7275, VII, 82; Bancroft, History of California, vol. I, p. 472]. Leader of the five to eight soldiers guarding new Misión de Santa Cruz, 1795–1797 [Bancroft, op. cit., p. 495]. Listed as retired 31 December 1801, 4 December 1815 [TBL, C–A 21: 76–77, 81].

 

Name: José Gabriel Arce

Calidad:
Español
Born: c.1724 At: Villa de Sinaloa
Died: 1800 At: San Fernando Velicatá
Parents: Francisco Pereda y Arce and Rosa López
Wife: (I) Ana Gertrudis Velasco; (II) Josefa Aguilar
Children: (I) María Josefa, José Joaquín, María Concepción; (II) María Pilar

Enlisted 10 April 1749 at Presidio de Loreto, first served in the detachment in the cape region, went north with guard for Padre Jorge Retz at founding of Misión de Santa Gertrudis, acted as godfather there 29 October 1752. Spent 10 years, 1757–1767, as mayordomo of Misión de Guadalupe, then appointed by Visitor General Gálvez to be that mission’s guardian during the hiatus between Jesuit and Franciscan administrations [Service record: AHBCS, Político, doc. 113; Crosby, Doomed to Fail, pp. 18–19].

Went to San Diego in 1769 with in the Portolá party — proven by his presence at founding of Misión de San Fernando — stayed there while the governor went looking for Monterey [AHBCS, Político, doc. 113; AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Arce one of eight soldiers who signed as co-petitioners the request written by José Francisco Ortega at San Diego, 1 September 1770, to then governor of Antigua California, Matías de Armona, asking that they be returned to their homes as Gálvez had promised when the Alta California objectives were secured [AGNM, Californias, 76, 66, 267]. Sergeant stationed at Frontera 1783 [El Rosario marriages 11 January, 2 November; baptism 7 June]. Retired 1784 [AHBCS, Político, 123].

 

Name: Sebastian Constantino Arce

Calidad: Español
Born: c.1736 At: Villa de Sinaloa
Died: 1795 At: La Purísima Cadegomó
Parents: Francisco Pereda y Arce and Rosa López
Wife: (I) Josefa Rafaela Espinosa; (II) Francisca Velázquez
Children: (I) Ignacio María; (II) María Trinidad, Manuel, José Bernardo, Josefa Tomasa, Juan Bautista Ignacio, Santiago Domingo, María Rosalía,

Enlisted at Presidio de Loreto 1759. Guard at Misión de San Ignacio, April–September 1764 (appears as godfather and father in baptismal record). With Portolá in second party to San Diego — proven by his presence at founding of Misión de San Fernando [AHBCS, Político, doc. 30], and on to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [from his re-enlistment paper, 13 July 1775, AHBCS, Político, doc. 30; also AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Made three other trips with the supply train to San Diego [AHBCS, Político, doc. 30]. Godfather at San Fernando, 14 March and 24 July 1773, 20 August 1774, 8 November 1775. Godfather at El Rosario, 26 September 1776; witness at El Rosario 5 January 1777. Retired from service 20 September 1783 [AHBCS, Político, doc. 83]. Mayordomo at Misión de Santa Rosalía de Mulegé, 1784–1789; Misión de la Purísima de Cadegomó 1790–1795 [La Purísima burials, #666].

 

Name: Francisco de Avila

Calidad: Español
Born: c.1744 At: El Fuerte [Sinaloa]
Died: 1803 At: San Gabriel
Parents: [unknown]
Wife: (I) Josefa Quintana; (II) María Teresa Arevalo
Child: (II) Adanto, died as infant, day after baptism (1798).

Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — stayed there while the troops under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Soldier at Presidio of San Diego, 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, f. 275]. Transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Godfather at San Carlos de Monterey, February 1773. Unmarried as of 5 October 1773 [AGNM, Californias, 66, f.403–403v]. In early April, 1773, accused by both San Diego missionaries of being one of three soldiers, detached from San Gabriel, who raped two very young Indian girls at La Soledad [today Rose Canyon], just before reaching San Diego — one of the girls dying from her injuries [AGNM, Californias, 2 (parte 1), ff. 253, 255–265v]. Formal charges were pressed and Avila was kept imprisoned for over two years awaiting a verdict from authorities in México [Beilharz, Felipe de Neve, p. 27–30]. Around 1783, Avila was an early settler of San Jose, his plots of land mapped [Bancroft, History of California, vol. I, pp. 312n., 350]. Pedro Fages in 1791 writes of Avila as "an incorrigible rogue," and Bancroft wrote that he and Sebastián Alvitre "were usually in prison, in exile, or at forced work for their excesses with Indian women or with the wives of their neighbors … " [Bancroft, op. cit., 484, 640]. Widower and laborer with son, 16, in 1790 census of Pueblo de San José [TBL, Eldredge Papers], and banished from that pueblo in 1792 for unspecified derelictions [Bancroft, op. cit., 484, 640]. In San Gabriel by 1795 when he married and Indian girl; buried 5 September 1803.

 

 

Name: Manuel Antonio Badiola

Born: At:
Died: At:
Parents:
Wife:
Children:

Went as a mule driver to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — then continued to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. By 14 March 1773, when he served as a godfather at Misión de San Carlos de Monterey, he was listed a soldier.

 

 

Name: José Marcelino Bravo

Calidad: Mestizo
Born: 1746 At: San Luis Potosí
Died: post-1799 At:
Parents: Antonio Bravo and Ana Martínez
Wife: María del Carmen Chamorro
Children:

"Single man of medium height" on roster of Visitor General José Gálvez’s newly formed Esquadra del Sur, Real de Santa Ana [B. C. Sur], 1 November 1768 [AGI, Guadalajara 416, (104-3-2); Chapman 1104 — five of the 10 men in this company were from San Luis Potosí where Gálvez had recently been]. One of Junípero Serra’s guards as he went north from Loreto in 1769; burned when a faulty musket barrel split on being fired [Tibesar, The Writings of Junípero Serra, I, page 51]. Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — stayed there while the troops under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Soldier at Presidio of San Diego, 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, f. 275] and 17 October 1772 [Mason, "Garrisons of San Diego …"]. Bravo one of four soldiers accused by Fray Luís Jayme of committing rape at San Diego in August and September of 1772 [Jayme, Letter … , 43–46]. Transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Bravo served as a godfather at Misión de San Carlos de Monterey, 14 February 1773, and was listed as soldier in charge of the guards at that mission when he married a daughter of the presidio of Monterey’s blacksmith, 30 August 1774 — Pablo Antonio Cota was a witness to the wedding. Corporal in charge of guard at Misión de San Carlos de Monterey [CHS: "Diary of Fernando de Rivera … ]. In 1790, he and his wife were in San José with "dos agregados," children or wards, aged 16 and 14 [1790 census of Pueblo de San José, TBL, Eldredge Papers]. On 13 May 1796, he acted once again as godfather at San Carlos de Monterey, again listed as head of the mission’s guards. In 1799, Bravo was listed as a retired soldier given land in the soon-to-be-aborted new town of Branciforte (near Santa Cruz) [Bancroft, History of California, vol. I, page 571].

 

 

Name: José Anastasio Camacho

Born: At:
Died: At:
Parents:
Wife:
Children:

Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — stayed there while the troops under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Godfather at Misión de San Antonio de Padua, 7 March 1773. Unmarried as of 5 October 1773 [AGNM, Californias, 66, f.403–403v]. On 1 January 1775, Camacho listed as a deserter from San Diego, imprisoned at San Gabriel, and on 28 March 1775, still in prison [Mason, "Garrisons of San Diego …"]. Paradoxically, Camacho was soon to be credited with bravery for defense of the San Diego mission in the Indian attack of 4 November 1775 [Bancroft, History of California, vol. I, page 255].

Had an active account with warehouse at San Diego at end of 1779 [TBL, C–A 21: 66–68].

 

 

Name: José Cañizares

Calidad: Español
Born: c.1760 At: [unknown]
Died: post-1790 At: [unknown]
Parents: [unknown]

Went to San Diego as Rivera’s journal keeper; stayed there while the party under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Cañizares would be active as pilot, mate, and captain in Alta California shipping annals, particularly between 1774 and 1790. He was the first captain, in 1774, to bring a ship from San Blas to Monterey with no stop in San Diego. In 1775, he was the first to take a ship into San Francisco Bay, and also made a new and better map. He drew the plan on which construction of the new presidio of San Francisco was based. He was active in the beginnings of the sea otter trade. [see indices in: Burrus, Diario del Capitán Comandante Fernando de Rivera y Moncada; Tibesar, Writings of Junípero Serra; Bancroft, History of California.].Nevertheless, the life of José Cañizares remains an enigma; despite his prominence in writings, drawings, and direction of shipping, it would seem that no document records his parentage, date or place of birth, or any aspect of his social or family life.

 

 

Name: Guillermo Carrillo

Calidad: Español
Born: c.1733 At: Loreto
Died: 1782 At: San Diego
Parents: Juan Carrillo and Lucía Efigenia Millán
[Unmarried]

Carrillo is first noted on the Presidio de Loreto muster roll in 1751 [AGNM, Californias, 80, exp. 53, f. 442], when he also signed an accompanying petition [AGNM, Californias, 80, exp. 54]. He came with Rivera to San Diego in 1769 (during which trek, he was named in both journal because of his severe illness requiring him to be carried on a litter by accompanying neophytes.) Sufficiently recovered to go on to San Francisco with Portolá [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Carrillo was one of eight soldiers who signed as co-petitioners the request written by José Francisco Ortega at San Diego, 1 September 1770, asking that they be returned to their homes as Gálvez had promised when the Alta California objectives were secured [AGNM, Californias, 76, 66, 267]. However, Carrillo stayed on at San Diego as a cornerstone of the presidio, and was transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. He appears as corporal on muster rolls of 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, 275], 1 January 1775, 21 December 1777, and 1 January 1780 [Mason, "Garrisons of San Diego …"], and was still a corporal through 1781 [TBL, C–A 21: 53, 58]. Guillermo Carrillo died at San Diego 5 December 1782, almost a year after the death at Monterey of his younger brother Mariano (see below).

 

 

Name: Mariano Carrillo

Calidad: Español
Born: c.1738 At: Loreto
Died: 1782 At: Misión San Carlos
Parents: Juan Carrillo and Lucía Efigenia Millán
[Unmarried]

On 5 February and 3 September 1754, Mariano and his sister Antonia Victoria [who would become wife of José Francisco Ortega in 1758] served as godparents at San José de Comondú where their sister Isabel was the wife of the mission guard/mayordomo, Juan María Ruiz. On 26 July 1756, Mariano enlisted at Presidio de Loreto under Captain Fernando Rivera. After Carrillo accompanied Rivera to San Diego in 1769, the captain placed him in charge of soldiers left to guard the base at San Diego while he went north to seek Monterey with Governor Portolá and most of the assembled soldiers of the two land parties. Carrillo did go north with Portolá on the second, successful search for Monterey [AGNM, Californias, 2, exp. 11, ff. 308–10; AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Remained in Monterey under Pedro Fages [AGNM, Californias, 66, ff. 33–37; Californias 76, f. 275]. In 1772, now a sergeant, Carrillo wrote a fascinatingly blunt and circumstantial report complaining of Fages’s arbitrary, erratic, and unreasonable demands on the Leatherjacket soldiers. Perhaps Junípero Serra’s accompanying strong endorsement of Carrillo’s position helped to prevent this from blighting Carrillo’s career [Carrillo: AGNM, Californias, 66, ff. 33–37; Serra: AGNM, Californias, 66, ff. 31–33]. Transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Had an active account with warehouse at San Diego at end of 1779 [TBL, C–A 21: 66–68]. Carrillo died in the afternoon of 27 January 1782 at Monterey and was buried in the presidio chapel after a service by Fray Junípero Serra [TBL, C–A 15: 131]

 

 

Name: Agustín Castelo

Born: 1737 At: Villa de Sinaloa
Died: At:
Parents:
Wife:
Children:

Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — stayed there while the troops under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Soldier at Presidio of San Diego, 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, 275]. Castelo one of four soldiers accused by Fray Luís Jayme of committing rape at San Diego in August and September of 1772 [Jayme, Letter … , 43–46]. Transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. On 1 January 1775, Castelo was listed as imprisoned at San Gabriel [CHS: "Diary of Fernando de Rivera … ]. In 1777, storekeeper Pedro y Gil, at San Diego, listed Castelo on the Escolta de la Frontera serving under Alférez José Velázquez [TBL, C–A 15: 37]. On 21 December 1777, he was listed on the San Diego muster, again on 1 January 1780, and for the final time, 20 May 1782 [all from Mason, "Garrisons of San Diego …"].

 

 

Name: Juan Antonio Coronel

Calidad: Mulato
Born: At: [prob.] Culiacán
Died: At:
Parents:
Wife: [married]
Children:

An arriero, or mule driver, with the second party to San Diego, the man who poulticed Fray Junípero Serra’s open wound [Bancroft, History of California, vol. I, page 135]. Went on to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera; soon went back with Portolá on the second, successful search for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Listed as "soldado de cuera" in San Carlos de Monterey and San Antonio de Padua baptismal records, 14 February and 13 July 1773. Of him, Serra wrote on 13 March 1773, "Juan Antonio Coronel, a mulatto, married in Sinaloa, and away from his wife for many years." [Tibesar, The Writings of Junípero Serra, I, page 325]. Serra’s remarks about the absence of the man’s wife may have been related to behavior reported by Guillermo Carrillo on 4 June and 31 July, 1773, "Coronel tried to call several women out, not, says Father Dumetz, in order to teach them Christian doctrine …." [Document in Vol. 1, no. 4, The Taylor Collection, Archdiocesan Offices, Archdiocese of San Francisco]. Verifying Serra’s report, on 5 October 1773, Coronel was listed as "married, wife in Culiacán" [AGNM, Californias, 66, f.403–403v].

 

 

Name: Andrés Cota

Calidad: Español

Born: 1739 At: [unknown]
Died: post-1785 At: [unknown]
Parents: Andrés Cota and Angela León
Wife: Antonia Verdugo
Children:

With Rivera to San Diego; went on to San Francisco under Portolá [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Cota one of eight soldiers who signed as co-petitioners the request written by José Francisco Ortega at San Diego, 1 September 1770, to then governor of Antigua California, Matías de Armona, asking that they be returned to their homes as Gálvez had promised when the Alta California objectives were secured [AGNM, Californias, 76, 66, 267]. Soldier at Presidio of San Diego, 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, f. 275].

 

Name: Pablo Antonio de Cota

Calidad: Español
Born: c.1737 At: Loreto [?]
Died: 1800 At: Santa Bárbara
Parents: Andrés Cota and Angela León
Wife: Rosa María Lugo
Children: Manuel Antonio, Apolonia María, María Isabel Ascención, María Manuela, Francisco Atanasio, Bartolomé José, María de los Santos, María Antonia Marta, María Tomasa.

Enlisted at Presidio de Loreto 14 July 1768. Hoja de Servicio: AGNM, Californias, 74, 279. With Portolá in second party to San Diego, and on to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Went north with Portolá again on the second, successful search for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Godfather at Misión de San Carlos de Monterey, 19 March 1771. Transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Godfather at San Carlos on 15 August 1774, and a witness at that mission when José Marcelino Bravo married, 30 August 1774. Elevated to corporal 10 October 1774 [Service record: AGI, Guadalajara, 286 (103-5-5)], and in charge of guard at Misión de San Luis Obispo, 1 January 1775 [CHS: "Diary of Fernando de Rivera … ]. Married at San Luis Obispo 30 November 1776. Elevated to sergeant on 1 November 1781 [AGI, Guadalajara, 286 (103-5-5)], and to alférez or lieutenant, 26 April 1788.

Cota’s long and useful life is well documented in Luann Davis Powell, "Pablo Antonio de Cota, Soldado de Cuera: Paso por aquí," (see Bibliography).

 

 

Name: Juan Crespí

Born: 1721 At: Palma, Mallorca
Died: 1782 At: Carmel, California
Parents: Joan Crespí and Joana Fiol

Juan Crespí joined the Franciscan Order in 1738. Studied philosophy under Junípero Serra, 1738–1740; ordained as Franciscan c.1746. Came to New Spain in 1749 with Serra and others of his order, all going in 1750 to the Sierra Gorda missions near Mexico City (where they remained until called by Croix and Gálvez to replace the California Jesuits in 1768. In California, Crespí was assigned to Misión de la Purísima Concepción de Cadegomo, and remained there until ordered to join the expedition to open Alta California. After taking part in both searches for Monterey, Crespí was a founder of Misión de San Carlos de Monterey, 3 June 1770, and stayed there for most of the remainder of his life, leaving only during part of 1774 to accompany the Pérez sailing exploration to Puget Sound and Vancouver Island [Palóu, Life of Fray Junípero Serra, pp. 455–56].

 

Name: Juan José Domínguez

Calidad: Español
Born: 1736 At: Villa de Sinaloa
Died: 1809 At: San Gabriel
Parents: José Ignacio Domínguez and Ana María Sepulveda
[unmarried] Child: Ursula Domínguez, illegitimate daughter with neophyte from Misión de Santa Gertrudis.

Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — then continued to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Soldier at Presidio of San Diego, 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, f. 275]. Godfather at San Fernando Velicatá, 5 September 1773. On 1 January 1775, Domínguez was on the San Diego muster, again on 21 December 1777, again on 1 January 1780, and for the final time, 20 May 1782 [all from Mason, op. cit.]. By 1786, an early settler of Los Angeles [Bancroft, History of California, vol. I, pp. 460–61]. Grantee of San Pedro Rancho ("Dominguez Hills"), 1800–1822 [Bancroft, op. cit., 662].

 

Name: José Joaquín Espinosa

Born: At:
Died: At:
Parents:
Wife:
Children:

Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — then continued to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Soldier at Presidio of San Diego, 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, f. 275]. Godfather to child of José Gabriel Arce at Santa Gertrudis, 5 November 1771. Soldier at Monterey, 1 January 1775 [CHS: "Diary of Fernando de Rivera … ]. Gave testimony during marriage investigation at Todos Santos, 1777. Made formal complaints against Felipe Santiago Espinosa in 1780 (reason not explicit, AHBCS, Político, doc. 28). Died at Yuma in 1781, along with fellow members of 1769 expedition, Fernando de Rivera and Juan José Robles [Bancroft, History of California, vol. I, p. 363].

 

 

Name: José María Góngora

Calidad: Español
Born: c.1750 At: Loreto
Died: post-1785 At: La Purísima Cadegomó [?]
Parents: Cristóbal María Gutiérrez de Góngora and María Josefa Rodríguez
Wife: (I) Rosalía Maximiliana Verdugo; (II) Felipa Ignacia Noriega
Children: (I) José María Francisco de Paula, José Antonio Góngora; (II) Hermenegildo José Loreto

Gongóra’s father had risen from soldier to lieutenant at the Presidio de Loreto (1735–1753), a man from a family long devoted to Jesuit California. José María’s mother was a daughter of Loreto’s legendary Esteban Rodríguez, captain from 1701–1744. His whole family was literate and at the top of the social ladder in California’s miniature Hispanic society. Fernando de Rivera acted as a virtual uncle to this son of his longtime colleague, and took him with him to San Diego in 1769 (along with his cousin Juan José Robles, q.v.), then on to San Francisco, both of them under Portolá. Went north again with Portolá on the second, successful search for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Remained in Monterey under Pedro Fages [AGNM, Californias 76, f. 275]. Góngora was transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. When Rivera returned in 1774 as military governor of the new territory, he made Góngora a sergeant and kept him under his eye during his three stormy years in this office. Góngora was thus involved in several noteworthy events — and drew praise from Fray Junípero Serra for his diligence and character. [see indices in: Burrus, Diario del Capitán Comandante Fernando de Rivera y Moncada; Tibesar, Writings of Junípero Serra.].When Rivera’s term as governor ended (1777) and he returned to his old post as captain at Loreto, Góngora returned with him and remained attached to that presidio, from which he retired in 1783 — and was sent to Sonora for medical treatment [AHBCS, Político, 83, 95]. His last child was baptized at Comondú in 1785 [Martínez, Guía Familiar, 129], and his last documentary appearance was as a retired soldier at Loreto, 31 December 1786 [AHBCS, Político, doc. 149].

 

 

Name: Alejo Antonio González

Born: c.1735 At: [unknown]
Died: At:
Parents:
Wife:
Children:

Mayordomo, probably of a ranch, at Todos Santos, 1764 [AGNM, Provincias Internas 7, 85A]. Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — stayed there while the troops under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Soldier at Presidio of San Diego, 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, 275], 1 January 1775 [Mason, "Garrisons of San Diego …"]. Unmarried as of 5 October 1773 [AGNM, Californias, 66, f.403–403v]. Stationed as guard at the San Diego mission at time of the Indian attack of 4 November 1775 [Bancroft, History of California, vol. I, page 250]. Had an active account with warehouse at San Diego at end of 1779 [TBL, C–A 21: 66–68].

  

Name: José Rafael Hernández

Born: At:
Died: At:
Parents:
Wife:
Children:

Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — stayed there while the troops under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Soldier at Presidio of San Diego, 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, f. 275]. Hernández one of four soldiers accused by Fray Luís Jayme of committing rape at San Diego in August and September of 1772 [Jayme, Letter … , 43–46].

 

 

Name: José Ygnacio Higuera

Born: c.1734 At: [unknown]
Died: post-1783 At:
Parents: [unknown]
Wife: (I) María Gertrudis Armenta; (II) Ana Rita Bojórquez
Child: (I) María Gertrudis

Soldier of Presidio de Loreto, probably by 1754 when first child born there. Godfather at Santa Gertrudis, 5 December 1766. Guard at San Borja on 29 September 1767. With Rivera to San Diego, then on to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, but did not return with him to San Diego in July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Godfather and witness at new mission El Rosario, both on 30 July 1775. Went exploring with Alférez José Velázquez and Javier Aguilar into the Colorado River delta [Report by Velázquez to Felipe de Neve, 26 November 1775 AGNM, Historia, 52]. Retired from service 20 September 1783 [AHBCS, Político, doc. 83].

 

 

Name: Sebastián Manríquez

Calidad: "de color quebrado"
Born: c.1715 At: Compostela [Nayarit]
Died: post-1775 At: [unknown]
Parents: Francisco Manríquez and Agustina Regina
Wife: (I) Francisca Antonia Estrada; (II) Juliana Bustamante
Children: (I) María Loreta; (II) Ignacio Javier, María Ignacia Pasquala, María Josefa, Luis Gonzaga María

With Rivera to San Diego, then on to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, but did not return with him to San Diego in July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Son Luis Gonzaga baptized 27 April 1773 at Comondú. On 20 June 1775 at Misión de San Fernando Manríquez was godfather at baptism of two adult gentiles.

 

 

Name: Juan María Miranda

Born: At:
Died: post-1796 At: Loreto [?]
Parents:
Wife: Josefa Cota
Child: Juan Bautista Ignacio (born Loreto 1779)

With Rivera to San Diego, then on to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Soldier at Presidio of San Diego and noted as "married" [AGNM, Californias, 76, 275]. Had an active account with warehouse at San Diego at end of 1779 [TBL, C–A 21: 66–68]. "Soldado de cuera" at Misión de Santa Gertrudis, 7 March 1780.

 

 

Name: Francisco Javier Ochoa

Calidad: Español
Born: c.1730 At: El Fuerte [Sinaloa]
Died: 1805 at Loreto [AHBCS, Político 479]
Parents: Juan Ochoa and Juana María Armenta
Wife: María Bernarda Velasco
Children:

Literate. Enlisted at Loreto 1751 [TBL, Eldredge Papers]. Witness at San Borja 24 January 1763. Probably with Rivera to San Diego; certainly to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, but did not return with him to San Diego in July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Godfather at new mission of El Rosario, 3 September 1775, 3 October 1775. Frequently assigned to deliver mail up or down the peninsula. Stationed at la frontera, 1783 [AHBCS, Político, 83, 95]. Retired 1784 [AHBCS, Político, 123]; lived at Loreto on retirement pay until death 16 February 1805 [AHBCS, Político, 479].

 

 

Name: José Gabriel Ojeda

Calidad: Español

Born: c.1725 At: [unknown]
Died: post-1774 At:
Parents: [unknown
Wife: María Ignacia Josefa Rojas
Children: Francisco María, José Antonio, Ignacio María, Domingo María, José María, Mariano

Soldier in California by 1744 [AGNM, Provincias Internas 211, exp. 15]. Ojeda and his wife acted as godparents at Misión de Santiago, 1762. Son Francisco born at Santa Rosa near San José del Cabo, c.1765. With Rivera to San Diego, then on to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, but did not return with him to San Diego in July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B].

 

 

Name: José Ygnacio de Olivera

Calidad: Español
Born: c.1750 At: San José del Cabo
Died: 1794 At: Santa Bárbara
Parents: Martín Olivera and María Micaela Carrillo
Wife: María Loreta Feliz
Children: Antonio Lucas María Olivera, Ana María Leonor Olivera, Diego Antonio de la Luz Olivera, María Estefana Olivera

Enlisted at Loreto, 20 February 1768 [AHH, Marina, leg. 477, 10]. Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — stayed there while the troops under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Soldier at Presidio of San Diego, 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, 275]. Served as godfather at Misión de San Gabriel, 15 August 1772. Listed as soldier at Presidio de San Diego, late 1772, but corporal by 1 January 1780 [Mason, "Garrisons of San Diego …"]. Still corporal 8 August, 4 October 1781 [TBL, C–A 21: 53, 54], but entered as sergeant at Presidio de Santa Bárbara when son Lucas was confirmed, 22 March 1782, at San Gabriel. Stationed at Santa Bárbara 1793 [AHH, Marina, leg. 477, 10].

 

 

Name: Juan María de Olivera

Calidad:
Español
Born: 1746 At: Loreto
Died: 1801 At: San Gabriel
Parents: Martín Olivera and María Micaela Carrillo
Wife: María Guadalupe Briones Calidad: Mestiza
Children: José Leonardo Martín, José Desiderio, María Josefa de Jesús, José Antonio Secundino, Marcela Prisca, Margarita de Cortona, Isidoro Juan María

Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — stayed there while the troops under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, but did not return with him to San Diego in July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Soldier at Presidio of San Diego, late 1772 [Mason, "Garrisons of San Diego …"] Transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Unmarried as of 5 October 1773 [AGNM, Californias, 66, f.403–403v]. Soldier at Monterey, 1 January 1775 [CHS: "Diary of Fernando de Rivera … ]. Soldier at San Diego, 1 January 1780; corporal 20 May 1782, 1 December 1784; local settler in 1790 [all from Mason, op. cit.].

 

 

Name: José Francisco Ortega

Calidad: Español
Born: 1734 At: Celaya [Guanajuato]
Died: 1798 At: Santa Bárbara
Parents: [unknown]
Wife: María Antonia Victoria Carrillo
Children: José María, Ignacio María, María Luisa de los Dolores

At San Diego, 1 September 1770, Ortega wrote to then governor of Antigua California, Matías de Armona, asking that he and nine other men of the presidio of Loreto be returned to their homes as Gálvez had promised when the Alta California objectives were secured [AGNM, Californias, 76, 66, 267]. By 11 November 1772, sergeant in charge of the guard at Misión San Fernando de Velicatá [AGNM, Californias, 2, exp. 8, f. 248].

Had an active account with warehouse at San Diego at end of 1779 [TBL, C–A 21: 66–68].

Lieutenant in command at San Diego 8 August, 4 October 1781 [TBL, C–A 21: 53, 54].

 

 

Name: Juan Ismerio de Osuna

Calidad: Español
Born: c.1745 At: Rosario [Sinaloa]
Died: 1790 At: San Gabriel
Parents: [unknown]
Wife: María Ignacia Alvarado
Children: José Joaquín, María Josefa, José María, María Francisca, Juan María,

Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — then continued to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B].

 

 

Name: Juan Luis Osuna

Calidad: Español
Born: 1715 At: [unknown]
Died: post-1774 At:
Parents: [unknown]
Wife: Ana María Alvarado
Children: José Francisco, Bernardo

With Rivera to San Diego, then on to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back to San Diego in July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Soldier at Presidio of San Diego, 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, f. 275].

 

 

Name: Gaspar Portolá

Calidad: Noble
Born: c.1717 At: Balaguer [Spain]
Died: 1786 At: Lérida [Spain]
Parents: Francisco de Portolá y Subirá and Teresa de Rovira y Sanispleda

Enlisted in Spanish Dragoons as an officer at the lowest level in 1734; promoted to full lieutenant in 1743.Took part in military actions in Italy and Portugal before his transfer to New Spain in 1762. By 1767, he had been promoted to captain and ordered to lead his company in a war against Sonoran Indians; those orders countermanded by his appointment to the governorship of California with instructions to expel the Jesuits and to prepare to march north to establish a Spanish presence at Monterey. After his successful occupation of Monterey in 1770, the governor returned to Mexico City and shortly to Spain, where he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and, by 1774, given a post in the garrison of the city of Barcelona in his home territory. However, in 1776, he was made governor of the province of Puebla, New Spain, and soon was back in the New World where he was promoted to Colonel and remained until relieved of his command in 1785, when he was returned to Spain as Royal Deputy of Lérida, presiding for the crown over the town council. He died there the following year. Gaspar de Portolá never married. [All data from Boneu Companys, Gaspar de Portolá …]

 

 

Name: Martín Reyes

Calidad: Mestizo

Born: 1730 At: Villa de Sinaloa
Died: 1798 At: San Gabriel
Parents:
Wife: María Celia (convert Indian), 1795
Children:

Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — then continued to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera. Went north again with Portolá on the second, successful search for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Appeared as godfather at Misión de San Antonio de Padua, 21 November 1772. Transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Unmarried as of 5 October 1773 [AGNM, Californias, 66, f.403–403v]. Listed as "soldado de cuera" while acting as witness at wedding of fellow 1769 veteran José Marcelino Bravo at Misión de San Carlos de Monterey, 30 August 1774. Reyes on muster of Presidio of San Diego, 1 January 1775 [CHS: "Diary of Fernando de Rivera … ]. Had an active account with warehouse at San Diego at end of 1779 [TBL, C–A 21: 66–68]. Still listed as soldier when he acted as a witness to a 20 November 1781 wedding at San Gabriel. By 1786, an early settler of Los Angeles [Bancroft, History of California, vol. I, pp. 460–61]. According to his 26 August 1795 San Gabriel marriage record, still an inhabitant of Los Angeles.

 

 

Name: Fernando Javier Rivera y Moncada

Calidad: Español
Born: 1724 At: Compostela [Nayarit]
Died: 1781 At: Yuma [Arizona]
Parents: Cristóbal Rivera y Mendoza and Josefa Ramón de Moncada y de la Peña
Wife: María Teresa Dávalos y Patrón
Children: Juan Bautista Francisco María, José Nicolás María, Luis Gonzaga Francisco María, Isabel

Enlisted at Presidio de Loreto in 1742 and served in the Esquadra del Sur, the presidio’s southern detachment, for six years. Elevated to the captaincy in 1752 and served in that capacity, broken only by stints in Alta California, until his retirement in 1774. Called back to royal service, he led groups of settlers to Alta California from west coast areas of New Spain until he was killed at Yuma in 1781 while engaged in this activity. Rivera was married in 1754 to a childhood friend from Compostela [Crosby, Antigua California, pp. 335–345].

 

Name: Juan José Robles

Calidad: Español
Born: 1728 At: Loreto
Died: 1781 At: Yuma [Arizona]
Parents: José Antonio Robles and María Loreta Rodríguez
[unmarried]

Like his cousin José María Góngora, who accompanied him to San Diego, and his younger brother Manuel Mariano Robles, who remained as a guard at the new mission of San Fernando de Velicatá, Juan José Robles was a grandson of Esteban Rodríguez, Loreto’s captain for an incredible forty-three years, 1701–1744. First soldier listed on Presidio de Loreto muster roll, 1751 [AGNM, Californias, 80, exp. 53, f. 442]. Robles one of seven Loreto soldiers who gave testimony favorable to the Jesuits to be sent to the viceroy, 9 September 1766 [AGNM, Provincias Internas, 7. exp. 11]. Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — stayed there while the troops under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Robles one of eight co-signers on the petition written by José Francisco Ortega at San Diego, 1 September 1770, asking that they be returned to their homes as Visitor General Gálvez had promised when the Alta California objectives were secured [AGNM, Californias, 76, 66, 267]. Robles led the list of soldiers at San Diego on 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, 275], and was transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Godfather 27 March 1774 at San Carlos de Monterey, and at San Gabriel 23 July 1774, where he was noted as the corporal of the mission guard — also listed as the corporal at San Gabriel on 1 January 1775 [CHS: "Diary of Fernando de Rivera … ], and again on 28 March 1775, a corporal at Monterey but attached to San Diego in 1776–1777 [Mason, "Garrisons of San Diego …"], and back at Monterey, elevated to sergeant, in 1780 [Beilharz, Felipe de Neve, p. 113]. In 1781, Robles was assisting Captain Fernando de Rivera in bringing a group of colonists along the Anza trail, when he, the captain, and several other soldiers were killed by local Indians at Yuma, all the colonists escaping to arrive safely in San Gabriel.

[N. B. During his years of service to the Jesuits, Juan Joseph Robles signed himself "Joseph de Robles;" later, "Juan Joseph" — a comparison of signatures demonstrates that they were written by the same individual. A 1751 example may be seen in Crosby, Antigua California, p. 160, and a 1770 example in AGNM, Californias, 76, 66, 267.]

 

 

Name: Bernardo Rubio

Born: At:
Died: At:
Parents:
Wife:
Children:

Literate, witness to Fernando de Rivera testimonial, Loreto 1766 [AGNM, Provincias Internas 7, exp. 11]. With Rivera to San Diego, then on to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Rubio one of eight soldiers who signed as co-petitioners the request written by José Francisco Ortega at San Diego, 1 September 1770, to then governor of Antigua California, Matías de Armona, asking that they be returned to their homes as Gálvez had promised when the Alta California objectives were secured [AGNM, Californias, 76, 66, 267]. Still a soldier at Presidio of San Diego, 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, f. 275].

 

 

Name: José Carlos Rubio

Born: 1744 At: Villa de Sinaloa
Died: At:
Parents: Carlos Rubio Monroy and Nicolasa Antonia Redondo
Wife: [unknown, but married by 1768 Milicias enlistment]
Children:

Newly enlisted in California and one of Junípero Serra’s guards as he went north from Loreto in 1769 [Tibesar, The Writings of Junípero Serra, I, page 51]. With Portolá in second party to San Diego, and on to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera. Went north again with Portolá on the second, successful search for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Remained in Monterey under Pedro Fages [AGNM, Californias, 66, ff. 33–37; Californias 76, f. 275]. Godfather at Monterey 20 January and 15 August 1771, and at Santa Gertrudis, 11 February 1774.

 

 Name: Antonio Vicente Ruiz

Born: c.1740 At: (prob.) El Fuerte [Sinaloa]
Died: At:
Parents:
Wife:
Children:

Soldier at Misión de San Borja, witness on 6 September 1762. By 11 November 1772, corporal in the guard at Misión San Fernando de Velicatá [AGNM, Californias, 2, exp. 8, f. 248]. With Rivera to San Diego, then on to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B].

 

 

Name: Junípero Serra

Born: 1713 At: Petra, Mallorca
Died: 1784 At: San Carlos de Monterey
Parents: Antonio Serra and Margarita Ferrer

Taught religious philosophy at the Franciscan college in Palma, Mallorca, 1734–1749, then received call to New Spain where he taught at College of San Fernando, then served as missionary in the Sierra Gorda, and conducted evangelical meetings in the greater area of Mexico City. Appointed head of missionary group sent, in 1768, to replace California’s expelled Jesuits. Ordered to go with Governor Gaspar de Portolá to Alta California in 1769, spent the rest of his life as head of the growing chain of Franciscan missions in the New California that he helped to found and define.

 

Name: Alejandro de Soto [sometimes listed as "Sotomayor"]

Born: c.1745 At: El Fuerte [Sinaloa]
Died: post-1811 At:
Parents:
Wife: María de la Concepción Montiel (1782)
Children: José Crisogeno de la Luz, José Doroteo de la Cruz

Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — stayed there while the troops under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Did go north with Portolá on the second, successful search for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Remained in Monterey under Pedro Fages [AGNM, Californias, 66, ff. 33–37; Californias 76, f. 275]. Godfather at San Carlos de Monterey, 20 January 1771, 27 October 1771. Transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Godfather at San Fernando, January 1773 [SF441]. Unmarried as of 5 October 1773 [AGNM, Californias, 66, f.403–403v]. Godfather at San Carlos de Monterey, 15 August 1774. On muster of Presidio of San Diego, 1 January 1775 [CHS: "Diary of Fernando de Rivera … ]. Had an active account with warehouse at San Diego at end of 1779 [TBL, C–A 21: 66–68]. Godfather at San Gabriel, 22 March 1782. Married at Misión de San Buenaventura, 30 August 1782. Godfather at Santa Barbara, 24 January 1785. Godfather at San Ignacio, 21 September 1811.

 

 

Name: Mateo Ygnacio Soto

Born: At:
Died: At:
Parents:
Wife:
Children:

Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — stayed there while the troops under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Soldier at Presidio of San Diego, 2 September 1770 [AGNM, Californias, 76, f. 275]. Three times godfather at San Carlos, February 1773. In early April, 1773, accused by both San Diego missionaries of being one of three soldiers, detached from San Gabriel, who raped two very young Indian girls at La Soledad [today Rose Canyon], just before reaching San Diego — one of the girls dying from her injuries. Formal charges were pressed, but Soto had already gone to carry mail to the peninsula. Efforts to find him were fruitless and it was assumed he had fled to the mainland. Eventually, all three men were "sentenced" to become settlers Alta California pueblos [AGNM, Californias, 2 (parte 1), ff. 253, 255–265v; Beilharz, Felipe de Neve, p. 27–30].

 

Name: Antonio Trasviña

Calidad: Español

Born: c.1728 At: El Fuerte [Sinaloa]
Died: At:
Parents:
Wife: Mariana Verdugo
Children: Javiera, María Antonia

Literate soldier of Presidio de Loreto, witnessed a report by Fernando de Rivera at Misión de Santiago, 8 November 1759. With wife, godparents at Santa Gertrudis to child of Don Pedro Sotero, 21 October 1760. Probably with Rivera to San Diego; certainly to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, but did not return with him to San Diego in July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B].

 

 

Name: Juan Bautista Valdés

Born: At:
Died: At:
Parents:
Wife:
Children:

Signed as witness to Rivera’s inventory of Comondú mission, 30 December 1767 [AHBCS, Religioso, doc. 3]. Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — then continued to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Valdés’s full literacy confirmed by his writing in late 1770 about a Baja California neophyte able to converse with local Indians around the first camp at Monterey [Bancroft, History of California, vol. I, p. 175].

 

 

Name: José María Vegerano

Calidad: Español

Born: c.1749 At: Magdalena [Jalisco]
Died: 1769 At: San Diego

Serra’s personal arriero/servant, killed in Indian uprising at San Diego, 15 August 1769 [Tibesar, The Writings of Junípero Serra, 4, pages 342/343].

 

 

Name: José Velázquez

Calidad: Español
Born: 1717 At: San Ildefonso de Ostimuri
Died: 1785 At: San Gabriel
Parents: [unknown]
Wife: Juana García
Children: Francisca, Anastasia María

Probably with Rivera to San Diego; stayed there while the party under Portolá went looking for Monterey [Service record in AGI, Guadalajara, 286 (103-5-5) Chapman doc. 4909; also AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Did go north with Portolá on the second, successful search for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Performed the greatest feat of the so-called Portolá expeditions, 1769, 1770 — left Monterey on 14 June 1770, with companion Juan Bautista Caravajal, to carry a letter announcing the port’s discovery and occupation to waiting officials in México [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B, f. 159v.]. Eventually took ship at San José del Cabo and carried his news all the way to Mexico City [AGI, Guadalajara, 286 (103-5-5) Chapman doc. 4909]. Alférez at San Diego 8 August, 4 October 1781 [TBL, C–A 21: 53, 54].

 

 

Name: Mariano de la Luz Verdugo

Calidad: Español
Born: c.1745 At: San Javier
Died: 1822 At: Los Angeles
Parents: Juan Diego Verdugo and María Ignacia Carrillo
Wife: (I) María Guadalupe Lugo (1775); (II) Gregoria Espinosa
Child: María Concepción Verdugo

Enlisted at Presidio of Loreto, 15 December 1766 [Service record: TBL, C–A 15: 67]. With Rivera to San Diego, then on to San Francisco under Portolá and Rivera [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, and back with him to San Diego, July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Verdugo one of eight soldiers who signed as co-petitioners the request written by José Francisco Ortega at San Diego, 1 September 1770, to then governor of Antigua California, Matías de Armona, asking that they be returned to their homes as Gálvez had promised when the Alta California objectives were secured [AGNM, Californias, 76, 66, 267]. Verdugo returned to Velicatá with Rivera in 1770, engaged in the "Battle of La Cienguilla"where eight Indians were killed [TBL, C–A 15: 67]. Transferred from jurisdiction of Loreto to that of Alta California, 1 January 1773 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Godfather three times at San Carlos de Monterey, February 1773.Corporal in charge of the guard at Misión San Luis Obispo, 1773 [Bancroft, History of California, vol. I, page 662–63]. Corporal at San Diego 1 January and 28 March 1775 [Mason, "Garrisons of San Diego …"]. Temporarily in command at San Diego, November 1775, during the bloody Indian uprising. Had an active account with warehouse at San Diego at end of 1779 [TBL, C–A 21: 66–68]. Promoted to sergeant and put in charge of the Monterey company 1780–1787 [Bancroft, op. cit., 662–63]. By 1786, an early land grant recipient in Los Angeles, and by 1795, holder of title to El Portezuelo, one of the first five ranches in the area [Bancroft, op. cit., pp. 460–61, 661–62].

 

 Name: Narciso Verdugo

Born: At:
Died: At:
Parents:
Wife:
Children:

Went to San Diego in 1769 — which party, unknown — stayed there while the troops under Portolá went looking for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. With Rivera on his return to Velicatá, 11 February 1770, but did not return with him to San Diego in July 1770 [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. José Francisco Ortega’s letter of 2 September 1770 lists him as one who, at San Diego in August 1770, was assigned to serve as a sailor on the San Carlos [AGNM, Californias, 76, 275].

 

 

Name: Anastasio Verduzco

Born: c.1740 At: [unknown]
Died: 1818 At: Caduaño [B. C. Sur]
Parents: [unknown]
Wife: María Ignacia de los Santos Ruiz
Children: Anastasio, Rafael

By 1765, mayordomo of Misión de Todos Santos, or one of its ranches. Went to San Diego with Rivera in 1769; stayed there while the party under Portolá went looking for Monterey. Did go north with Portolá on the second, successful search for Monterey [AGNM, Indiferente de Guerra, Legajo 3, 161 B]. Remained in Monterey under Pedro Fages [AGNM, Californias 76, f. 275]. Served Presidio de Loreto 1768–1787; made corporal before 1780 [AGNM, Californias, 16, exp. 2]; went on retirement 1787 [AHBCS, Político, 169] and retained retirement pay until death ±1 December 1818 [AHBCS, Político, 688, 692]. Mayordomo of Misión La Purísima, 1788 [Martínez, Guía Familiar, 130]. Before 1800, founder of Rancho Caduaño where he spent the last 20 years of his life [AHBCS, Político 404].

 

[AGNM, Californias, 76, 275]

[Beilharz, Felipe de Neve, p. 27–30].